Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Related Diseases

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Related Diseases

What is HPV?

HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus. There are over 40 different HPV types that may infect the genital (private) area.

Oncogenic (cancer-causing) HPV, also called high-risk HPV (especially HPV 16 and 18) can cause cancers of the cervix, vagina, and vulva in women; penis cancer in men; and anal cancer and some mouth/throat cancers in men and women. Non-oncogenic HPV or low-risk HPV (most commonly HPV 6 and 11) can cause warts in the genital and anal areas. These warts are called condyloma acuminatum.

HPV lives only in skin cells (epithelium) and no other kinds of cells, so the only way to get it from another person is through skin-to-skin spread. That usually means contact between genital skin of one person and genital skin of another person. It is currently believed that HPV is rather easily acquired; wearing condoms is helpful in preventing HPV spread.

Most infections with HPV will go away (or clear) on their own (without any treatment) within 2 years of infection. But in some cases the infection does not go away and is then called chronic or persistent. Chronic infection with high-risk HPV may cause dysplasia (abnormal changes) and could eventually cause cancer.

People living with HIV are more likely to have an HPV infection that lasts a long time (persistent infection). This means that people living with HIV have a higher chance of getting dysplasia or cancer of the genital area compared with people without HIV.

Dr. Elizabeth Stier and her team provide services in the diagnosis and management of HPV-related diseases of the lower genital tract and gynecology-related problems. This includes condyloma (warts) and precancerous changes (dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia) of the cervix, vulva, and/or anus. Although Dr. Stier is a gynecologist, she evaluates both men and women referred for an abnormal anal Pap test with High Resolution Anoscopy. In addition, Dr. Stier does gynecological evaluations such as cervical Pap, colposcopy, and endometrial biopsy. Patients with precancerous (abnormal) changes of the anus may be offered treatment with an office procedure called Hyfrecation, or close follow up.

For more information on anal cancer, please download the (PDF) brochures for Anal Dysplasia/Cancer, High Resolution Anoscopy (HRA) and Hyfrecation.


Please call 617-414-4290.


Shapiro Center
9B, High Resolution Anoscopy (CID)
725 Albany St.
Boston, MA 02118