Stephen P. Christiansen, MD
B.S., Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL
M.D., The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
1. Pharmacological treatment of strabismus – Strabismus, or misalignment of the eyes, has been treated surgically for centuries. Even in the past 60 years, advances in strabismus treatment have been incremental at best. Unfortunately, surgical outcomes tend to be short-lived, and reoperation is frequently needed. A significant consequence of traditional surgical treatment is the disruption of the normal biomechanical construct – that is, the normal anatomy of the terminal extraocular muscle which moves the eye and the normal relationship of the muscle and the globe itself. In order to minimize these effects, we are investigating new toxins and growth factors that can alter muscle strength without altering the relationship of the muscle and the globe. Preliminary studies show great promise, and next steps include taking these agents to the bedside.
2. The response of extraocular muscle to changes in innervation and surgery
3. Retinopathy of Prematurity
4. Multi-Center clinical studies of strabismus treatment
Recent publications (2012-2015):
1) Willoughby CL, Christiansen SP, Mustari MJ, McLoon LK: Effects of the sustained release of IGF-1 on extraocular muscle of the infant non-human primate: Adaptations at the effector organ level. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2012;53:68-75.
2) Willoughby CL, Ralles S, Christiansen SP, McLoon LK: Effects of sequential injections of hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I on adult rabbit extraocular muscle. J AAPOS, 2012;16:354-360.
3) Christiansen SP: Diplopia after glaucoma surgery. Am Orthoptic J, 2012;62:9-12.
4) Wang CJ, Little AA, Kamholz K, Holliman JB, Wise MD, Davis J, Ringer S, Cole C, VanderVeen DK, Christiansen SP, Bauchner H: Improving preterm ophthalmologic care in the era of accountable care organizations. Arch Ophthalmol, 2012;130:1433-1440.
5) Davitt BV, Christiansen SP, Hardy RJ, Tung B, Good WV on behalf of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group: Incidence of cataract development by 6-month of corrected age in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. J AAPOS, 2013;17:49-53.
6) Bothun ED, Cleveland J, Lynn MJ, Christiansen SP, Vanderveen DK, Neely DE, Kruger SJ, Lambert SR, for the Infant Aphakic Treatment Study: One-year strabismus outcomes in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology, 2013; 120:1227-1231.
7) Christiansen SP: The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group: History, structure, and major accomplishments. Proceedings of the Bielschowsky-Gesellschaft, Essen, Germany, 2014. Z. prakt. Augenheilkd. 2015;36 (Suppl.2):2-4.