Branch Price Kerfoot, MD, EdM

Adjunct Associate Professor, Urology

Branch Kerfoot
150 S Huntington Avenue


B. Price Kerfoot, MD, EdM, is an Adjunct Associate Professor of Urology at the Chobanian and Avedisian School of Medicine. While completing his residency at Harvard Medical School, he discovered that students had poor long-term knowledge retention. Because knowledge retention is an important skill in medical school, he developed The Spacing Effect and The Testing Effect in order to increase long-term retention. The Spacing Effect is when information is presented and reinforced over spaced intervals of time. This repetition encodes the information so that it is more readily recalled. The Testing Effect is combining The Spacing Effect with immediate answer feedback such as drawing or summarizing key points in order to improve knowledge retention. This is the difference between passive learning (watching a video, reading, etc.) and active learning.

Other Positions

  • VA Boston Healthcare System



  • Harvard Medical School, MD
  • Harvard University, EdM
  • University of Oxford, MA
  • University of Oxford, BA
  • Princeton University, AB


  • Published on 8/8/2017

    Kerfoot BP, Gagnon DR, McMahon GT, Orlander JD, Kurgansky KE, Conlin PR. A Team-Based Online Game Improves Blood Glucose Control in Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2017 Sep; 40(9):1218-1225. PMID: 28790131.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 5/1/2014

    Kerfoot BP, Turchin A, Breydo E, Gagnon D, Conlin PR. An online spaced-education game among clinicians improves their patients' time to blood pressure control: a randomized controlled trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2014 May; 7(3):468-74. PMID: 24847084.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 10/1/2012

    Kerfoot BP, Baker H, Pangaro L, Agarwal K, Taffet G, Mechaber AJ, Armstrong EG. An online spaced-education game to teach and assess medical students: a multi-institutional prospective trial. Acad Med. 2012 Oct; 87(10):1443-9. PMID: 22914524.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 7/1/2012

    Kerfoot BP, Baker H. An online spaced-education game for global continuing medical education: a randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2012 Jul; 256(1):33-8. PMID: 22664558.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 1/5/2012

    Kerfoot BP, Baker H. An online spaced-education game to teach and assess residents: a multi-institutional prospective trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Mar; 214(3):367-73. PMID: 22225647.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 6/16/2011

    Kerfoot BP, Baker H, Connelly D, Joseph DB, Matson S, Ritchey ML. Do chief resident scores on the in-service examination predict their performance on the American Board of Urology Qualifying Examination? J Urol. 2011 Aug; 186(2):634-7. PMID: 21683391.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 3/1/2011

    Kerfoot BP, Shaffer K, McMahon GT, Baker H, Kirdar J, Kanter S, Corbett EC, Berkow R, Krupat E, Armstrong EG. Online "spaced education progress-testing" of students to confront two upcoming challenges to medical schools. Acad Med. 2011 Mar; 86(3):300-6. PMID: 21248600.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 11/1/2010

    Kerfoot BP, Lawler EV, Sokolovskaya G, Gagnon D, Conlin PR. Durable improvements in prostate cancer screening from online spaced education a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2010 Nov; 39(5):472-8. PMID: 20965387.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 7/13/2010

    Kerfoot BP, Fu Y, Baker H, Connelly D, Ritchey ML, Genega EM. Online spaced education generates transfer and improves long-term retention of diagnostic skills: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Sep; 211(3):331-337.e1. PMID: 20800189.

    Read at: PubMed
  • Published on 2/1/2010

    Kerfoot BP. Adaptive spaced education improves learning efficiency: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol. 2010 Feb; 183(2):678-81. PMID: 20022032.

    Read at: PubMed

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