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Philip A. Wolf, MD

Professor/ PI for Framingham Heart Study
Boston University School of Medicine
72 East Concord Street, Neurology B-6
Boston, MA 02118

Phone: 617-638-5450
Fax: 617-638-8086
Email: pawolf@bu.edu

Medical School: State University of New York Medical School, Syracuse, NY (1960)
Residency: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (1967)
Board Certifications: Neurology
Special Interests: Stroke, Cerebrovascular Disease


Recent Publications

Gupta A, Preis SR, Beiser A, Devine S, Hankee L, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Au R. Mid-life Cardiovascular Risk Impacts Memory Function: The Framingham Offspring Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2014 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Bis JC, DeStefano A, Liu X, Brody JA, Choi SH, Verhaaren BF, Debette S, Ikram MA, Shahar E, Butler KR Jr, Gottesman RF, Muzny D, Kovar CL, Psaty BM, Hofman A, Lumley T, Gupta M, Wolf PA, van Duijn C, Gibbs RA, Mosley TH, Longstreth WT Jr, Boerwinkle E, Seshadri S, Fornage M. Associations of NINJ2 sequence variants with incident ischemic stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 24;9(6):e99798. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099798. eCollection 2014.

Romero JR, Preis SR, Beiser A, DeCarli C, Viswanathan A, Martinez-Ramirez S, Kase CS, Wolf PA, Seshadri S. Risk factors, stroke prevention treatments, and prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in the Framingham Heart Study. Stroke. 2014 May;45(5):1492-4. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004130.

Weinstein G, Beiser AS, Choi SH, Preis SR, Chen TC, Vorgas D, Au R, Pikula A, Wolf PA, Destefano AL, Vasan RS, Seshadri S.Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and the Risk for Dementia: The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA Neurol. 2013 Nov 25.

Pikula A, Beiser AS, Chen TC, Preis SR, Vorgias D, Decarli C, Au R, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Wolf PA, Vasan RS, Seshadri S. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels Are Associated With Risk of Stroke and Vascular Brain Injury: Framingham Study. Stroke 2013. Aug 8

Romero JR, Mercado M, Beiser AS, Pikula A, Seshadri S, Kelly-Hayes M, Wolf PA, Kase CS. Transient global amnesia and neurological events: the Framingham Heart Study. Front Neurol 2013;4:47.

Romero JR, Wolf PA.  Epidemiology of Stroke: Legacy of the Framingham Heart Study. Glob Heart. 2013;8(1):67-75.

Weinstein G, Beiser AS, Au R, Decarli C, Wolf PA, Seshadri S. Association of parental stroke with brain injury and cognitive measures in offspring: the framingham heart study. Stroke 2013;44(3):812-5.

Nyborn JA, Himali JJ, Beiser AS, Devine SA, Du Y, Kaplan E, O’Connor MK, Rinn WE, Denison HS, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Au R.The Framingham Heart Study clock drawing performance: normative data from the offspring cohort. Exp Aging Res 2013;39:80-108.

Ahl RE, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Auerbach S, Wolf PA, Au R. Defining MCI in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring: Education Versus WRAT-based Norms. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2013 Jan 14.

Maillard P, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Himali JJ, Au R, Fletcher E, Carmichael O, Wolf PA, DeCarli C. Effects of systolic blood pressure on white-matter integrity in young adults in the Framingham Heart Study: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Neurol 2012;11(12):1039-47.

Romero JR, Preis SR, Beiser AS, DeCarli C, Lee DY, Viswanathan A, Benjamin EJ, Fontes J, Au R, Pikula A, Wang J, Kase CS, Wolf PA, Irrizary MC, Seshadri S.  Lipoprotein Phospholipase A2 and Cerebral Microbleeds in the Framingham Heart Study. Stroke September 2012

Weinstein G, Wolf PA, Beiser AS, Au R, Seshadri S.  Risk Estimations, Risk Factors, and Genetic Variants Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in Selected Publications from the Framingham Heart Study. Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Jul 12.

Pikula A, Beiser AS, DeCarli C, Himali JJ, Debette S, Au R, Selhub J, Toffler GH, Wang TJ, Meigs JB, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Wolf PA, Vasan RS, Seshadri S. Multiple biomarkers and risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury: the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation. 2012;125(17):2100-7.

Bis JC, DeCarli C, Smith AV, van der Lijn F, Crivello F, Fornage M, Debette S, Shulman JM, Schmidt H, Srikanth V, Schuur M, Yu L, Choi SH, Sigurdsson S, Verhaaren BF, …; Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Consortium, Nalls MA, Uitterlinden AG, Au R, Elbaz A, Beare RJ, van Swieten JC, Lopez OL, Harris TB, Chouraki V, Breteler MM, De Jager PL, Becker JT, Vernooij MW, Knopman D, Fazekas F, Wolf PA, …. Seshadri S; Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Common variants at 12q14 and 12q24 are associated with hippocampal volume. Nat Genet 2012;44(5):545-51.

Ikram MA, Fornage M, Smith AV, Seshadri S, Schmidt R, Debette S, Vrooman HA, Sigurdsson S, Ropele S, Taal HR, ….Windham BG, Wolf PA, van Duijn CM, Mosley TH Jr, Schmidt H, Launer LJ, Breteler MM, DeCarli C; Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Common variants at 6q22 and 17q21 are associated with intracranial volume. Nat Genet 2012;44(5):539-44.

Stein JL, Medland SE, Vasquez AA, Hibar DP, Senstad RE, Winkler AM, Toro R, Appel K, Bartecek R, Bergmann Ø, Bernard M, Brown AA, Cannon DM, Chakravarty MM, Christoforou A, Domin M, Grimm O, Hollinshead M, Holmes AJ, Homuth G, Hottenga JJ, Langan C, Lopez LM, Hansell NK, Hwang KS, Kim S, Laje G, Lee PH, Liu X, Loth E, Lourdusamy A, Mattingsdal M, Mohnke S, Maniega SM, Nho K, Nugent AC, O’Brien C, Papmeyer M, Pütz B, Ramasamy A, Rasmussen J, Rijpkema M, Risacher SL, Roddey JC, Rose EJ, Ryten M, Shen L, Sprooten E, Strengman E, Teumer A, Trabzuni D, Turner J, van Eijk K, van Erp TG, van Tol MJ, Wittfeld K, Wolf PA, …Smoller JW, Wardlaw JM, Weale ME, Martin NG, Franke B, Wright MJ, Thompson PM; Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Consortium. Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes. Nat Genet 2012;44:552-61.

Au R, Seshadri S, Knox K, Beiser A, Himali JJ, Cabral HJ, Auerbach S, Green RC, Wolf PA, McKee AC. The Framingham Brain Donation Program: Neuropathology Along The Cognitive Continuum. Curr Alzheimer Res 2012 Apr 2.

Driver JA, Beiser A, Au R, Kreger BE, Splansky GL, Kurth T, Kiel DP, Lu KP, Seshadri S, Wolf PA. Inverse association between cancer and Alzheimer’s disease: results from the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ 2012;344:e1442.

Tan ZS, Harris WS, Beiser AS, Au R, Himali JJ, Debette S, Pikula A, Decarli C, Wolf PA, Vasan RS, Robins SJ, Seshadri S. Red blood cell ω-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging. Neurology 2012;78(9):658-64.

Wolf PA. Contributions of the Framingham Heart Study to Stroke and Dementia Epidemiologic Research at 60 Years. Arch Neurol. 2012 Jan 2.

van Himbergen TM, Beiser AS, Ai M, Seshadri S, Otokozawa S, Au R, Thongtang N, Wolf PA, Schaefer EJ. Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance and Inflammation and the Risk for All-Cause Dementia and Alzheimer Disease: Results From the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2012 Jan 2.

Poly C, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Cho E, Krall E, Jacques PF, Au R. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1584-91

Bis JC, Kavousi M, Franceschini N, Isaacs A, Abecasis GR, Schminke U, Post WS, Smith AV, Cupples LA, Markus HS, Schmidt R, Huffman JE, Lehtimäki T, Baumert J, Münzel T, Heckbert SR, Dehghan A, North K, Oostra B, Bevan S, Stoegerer EM, Hayward C, Raitakari O, Meisinger C, Schillert A, Sanna S, Völzke H, Cheng YC, Thorsson B, Fox CS, Rice K, Rivadeneira F, Nambi V, Halperin E, Petrovic KE, Peltonen L, Wichmann HE, Schnabel RB, Dörr M, Parsa A, Aspelund T, Demissie S, Kathiresan S, Reilly MP, Taylor K, Uitterlinden A, Couper DJ, Sitzer M, Kähönen M, Illig T, Wild PS, Orru M, Lüdemann J, Shuldiner AR, Eiriksdottir G, White CC, Rotter JI, Hofman A, Seissler J, Zeller T, Usala G, Ernst F, Launer LJ, D’Agostino RB Sr, O’Leary DH, Ballantyne C, Thiery J, Ziegler A, Lakatta EG, Chilukoti RK, Harris TB, Wolf PA, Psaty BM, Polak JF, Li X, Rathmann W, Uda M, Boerwinkle E, Klopp N, Schmidt H, Wilson JF, Viikari J, Koenig W, Blankenberg S, Newman AB, Witteman J, Heiss G, Duijn C, Scuteri A, Homuth G, Mitchell BD, Gudnason V, O’Donnell CJ; CARDIoGRAM Consortium. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE consortium identifies common variants associated with carotid intima media thickness and plaque. Nat Genet. 2011;43(10):940-7

Jefferson AL, Himali JJ, Au R, Seshadri S, Decarli C, O’Donnell CJ, Wolf PA, Manning WJ, Beiser AS, Benjamin EJ. Relation of left ventricular ejection fraction to cognitive aging (from the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Nov 1;108(9):1346-51

Schnabel RB, Kerr KF, Lubitz SA, Alkylbekova EL, Marcus GM, Sinner MF, Magnani JW, Wolf PA, Deo R, Lloyd-Jones DM, Lunetta KL, Mehra R, Levy D, Fox ER, Arking DE, Mosley TH, Müller-Nurasyid M, Young TR, Wichmann HE, Seshadri S, Farlow DN, Rotter JI, Soliman EZ, Glazer NL, Wilson JG, Breteler MM, Sotoodehnia N, Newton-Cheh C, Kääb S, Ellinor PT, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, Heckbert SR; Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Atrial Fibrillation/Electrocardiography Working Group. Large-scale candidate gene analysis in whites and African Americans identifies IL6R polymorphism in relation to atrial fibrillation: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) project. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4(5):557-64.

Zade D, Beiser A, McGlinchey R, Au R, Seshadri S, Palumbo C,Wolf PA, Decarli C, Milberg W. Apolipoprotein Epsilon 4 Allele Modifies Waist-to-Hip Ratio Effects on Cognition and Brain Structure. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011 Aug 9

Debette S, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Au R, Himali JJ, Palumbo C,Wolf PA, DeCarli C. Midlife vascular risk factor exposure accelerates structural brain aging and cognitive decline.Neurology. 2011 Aug 2;77(5):461-8

Polak JF, Pencina MJ, Pencina KM, O’Donnell CJ, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB Sr. Carotid-wall intima-media thickness and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(3):213-21

Jefferson AL, Massaro JM, Beiser AS, Seshadri S, Larson MG,Wolf PA, Au R, Benjamin EJ. Inflammatory markers and neuropsychological functioning: the Framingham Heart Study. Neuroepidemiology. 2011;37(1):21-30

Fornage M, Debette S, Bis JC, Schmidt H, Ikram MA, Dufouil C, Sigurdsson S, Lumley T, DeStefano AL, Fazekas F, Vrooman HA, Shibata DK, Maillard P, Zijdenbos A, Smith AV, Gudnason H, de Boer R, Cushman M, Mazoyer B, Heiss G, Vernooij MW, Enzinger C, Glazer NL, Beiser A, Knopman DS, Cavalieri M, Niessen WJ, Harris TB, Petrovic K, Lopez OL, Au R, Lambert JC, Hofman A, Gottesman RF, Garcia M, Heckbert SR, Atwood LD, Catellier DJ, Uitterlinden AG, Yang Q, Smith NL, Aspelund T, Romero JR, Rice K, Taylor KD, Nalls MA, Rotter JI, Sharrett R, van Duijn CM, Amouyel P, Wolf PA, Gudnason V, van der Lugt A, Boerwinkle E, Psaty BM, Seshadri S, Tzourio C, Breteler MM, Mosley TH, Schmidt R, Longstreth WT, DeCarli C, Launer LJ. Genome-wide association studies of cerebral white matter lesion burden: the CHARGE consortium. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jun;69(6):928-39

Tan ZS, Beiser AS, Fox CS, Au R, Himali JJ, Debette S, Decarli C, Vasan RS, Wolf PA, Seshadri S. Association of metabolic dysregulation with volumetric brain magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive markers of subclinical brain aging in middle-aged adults: the Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes Care. 2011 Aug;34(8):1766-70

Seshadri S, Beiser A, Au R, Wolf PA, Evans DA, Wilson RS, Petersen RC, Knopman DS, Rocca WA, Kawas CH, Corrada MM, Plassman BL, Langa KM, Chui HC. Operationalizing diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive impairment-Part 2. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7(1):35-52

Polak JF, Pencina MJ, Meisner A, Pencina KM, Brown LS, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB Sr. Associations of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) with risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease: comparison of mean common carotid artery IMT with maximum internal carotid artery IMT. J Ultrasound Med. 2010 Dec;29(12):1759-68.

Schnabel RB, Aspelund T, Li G, Sullivan LM, Suchy-Dicey A, Harris TB, Pencina MJ, D’Agostino RB Sr, Levy D, Kannel WB, Wang TJ, Kronmal RA, Wolf PA, Burke GL, Launer LJ, Vasan RS, Psaty BM, Benjamin EJ, Gudnason V, Heckbert SR.  Validation of an atrial fibrillation risk algorithm in whites and African Americans. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Nov 22;170(21):1909-17.

Debette S, Beiser A, Hoffmann U, Decarli C, O’Donnell CJ, Massaro JM, Au R, Himali JJ, Wolf PA, Fox CS, Seshadri S.Visceral fat is associated with lower brain volume in healthy middle-aged adults. Ann Neurol 2010;68(2):136-44.

Jefferson AL, Himali JJ, Beiser AS, Au R, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Gona P, Salton CJ, DeCarli C, O’Donnell CJ, Benjamin EJ, Wolf PA, Manning WJ. Cardiac index is associated with brain aging: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2010;122(7):690-7.

Saczynski JS, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Auerbach S, Wolf PA, Au R. Depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: the Framingham Heart Study. Neurology 2010;75(1):35-41.

Stavitsky K, Du Y, Seichepine D, Laudate TM, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Decarli C, Wolf PA, Au R. White matter hyperintensity and cognitive functioning in the racial and ethnic minority cohort of the Framingham Heart Study.
Neuroepidemiology 2010;35(2):117-22.

Albert M, Massaro J, DeCarli C, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Au R. Profiles by sex of brain MRI and cognitive function in the framingham offspring study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2010;24(2):190-3.

Zade D, Beiser A, McGlinchey R, Au R, Seshadri S, Palumbo C,Wolf PA, Decarli C, Milberg W. Interactive effects of apolipoprotein E type 4 genotype and cerebrovascular risk on neuropsychological performance and structural brain changes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2010;19(4):261-8.

Seshadri S, Fitzpatrick AL, Ikram MA, DeStefano AL, .. Wolf PA, Launer LJ, Lopez OL, van Duijn CM, Breteler MM; CHARGE Consortium; GERAD1 Consortium; EADI1 Consortium. Genome-wide analysis of genetic loci associated with Alzheimer disease. JAMA 2010;303(18):1832-40.

Seshadri S, Beiser A, Pikula A, Himali JJ, Kelly-Hayes M, Debette S, DeStefano AL, Romero JR, Kase CS, Wolf PA. Parental occurrence of stroke and risk of stroke in their children: the Framingham study.Circulation. 2010;121(11):1304-12.

Debette S, Beiser A, DeCarli C, Au R, Himali JJ, Kelly-Hayes M, Romero JR, Kase CS, Wolf PA, Seshadri S. Association of MRI markers of vascular brain injury with incident stroke, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality: the Framingham Offspring Study. Stroke 2010;41(4):600-6.

Ikram MA, Seshadri S, Bis JC, Fornage M, DeStefano AL, Aulchenko YS, Debette S, Lumley T, Folsom AR, van den Herik EG, Bos MJ, Beiser A, Cushman M, Launer LJ, Shahar E, Struchalin M, Du Y, Glazer NL, Rosamond WD, Rivadeneira F, Kelly-Hayes M, Lopez OL, Coresh J, Hofman A, DeCarli C, Heckbert SR, Koudstaal PJ, Yang Q, Smith NL, Kase CS, Rice K, Haritunians T, Roks G, de Kort PL, Taylor KD, de Lau LM, Oostra BA, Uitterlinden AG, Rotter JI, Boerwinkle E, Psaty BM, Mosley TH, van Duijn CM, Breteler MM, Longstreth WT Jr, Wolf PA. Genomewide association studies of stroke. N Engl J Med 2009;360(17):1718-28.

Romero JR, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Benjamin EJ, Polak JF, Vasan RS, Au R, Decarli C, Wolf PA. Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis, MRI Indices of Brain Ischemia, Aging, and Cognitive Impairment the Framingham Study. Stroke 2009;40.

Romero JR, Vasan RS, Beiser AS, Polak JF, Benjamin EJ, Wolf PA,Seshadri S. Association of carotid artery atherosclerosis with circulating biomarkers of extracellular matrix remodeling: the Framingham Offspring Study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008 Nov-Dec;17(6):412-7.

Petrea RE, Beiser AS, Seshadri S, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Wolf PA. Gender Differences in Stroke Incidence and Poststroke Disability in the Framingham Heart Study. Stroke 2009;40:1032-7.

Das RR, Seshadri S, Beiser AS, Kelly-Hayes M, Au R, Himali JJ, Kase CS, Benjamin EJ, Polak JF, O’Donnell CJ, Yoshita M, D’Agostino RB Sr, DeCarli C, Wolf PA. Prevalence and correlates of silent cerebral infarcts in the Framingham offspring study.Stroke 2008;39(11):2929-35.

McGinn AP, Kaplan RC, Verghese J, LaCroix AZ, Rosenbaum DM, Psaty BM, Baird AE, Lynch JK, Wolf PA, Kooperberg C, Larson JC, Wassertheil-Smoller S. Walking speed and risk of incident ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women. Stroke 2008; 39:1233-1239.

D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina M, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, Kannel WB. A general cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2008;117(6):743-53.

Levitzky YS, Cupples LA, Murabito JM, Kannel WB, Kiel DP, Wilson PW, Wolf PA, O’Donnell CJ. Prediction of intermittent claudication, ischemic stroke, and other cardiovascular disease by detection of abdominal aortic calcific deposits by plain lumbar radiographs. Am J. Cardiol 2008 Feb1;101(3):326-31.

O’Donnell CJ, Demissie S, Kimura M, Levy D, Gardner JP, White C, D’Agostino RB, Wolf PA, Polak J, Cupples LA, Aviv A. Leukocyte telomere length and carotid artery intimal medial thickness. The Framingham Heart Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(6):1165-71.

Seshadri S, Wolf PA. Lifetime risk of stroke and dementia: Current concepts, and estimates from the Framingham Study. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:1106-1114.

Tan ZS, Beiser AS, Vasan RS, Roubenoff R, Dinarello CA, Harris TB, Benjamin EJ, Au R, Kiel DP, Wolf PA, Seshadri S.Inflammatory markers and the risk of alzheimer disease: the Framingham Study. Neurology 2007;68:1902-1908.

Kelly-Hayes M, Wolf PA. Response to letter by Salvador Vale, M.D. to the editor on depressive symptoms and risk of stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke June, 2007;38:e35.

Kelly-Hayes M, Wolf PA. Response to letter by Zoppo, et al. to the editor on psychological impact of diet modifications on vascular risk. Stroke 2007;38;8:e66.

Carandang R, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Kannel WB, Wolf PA. Trends in incidence, lifetime risk, severity, and 30-day mortality of stroke over the past 50 years. JAMA 2006;296(24):2939-46.

Wolf PA, Beiser A, Elias MF, Au R, Vasan RS, Seshadri S. Relation of obesity to cognitive function: importance of central obesity and synergistic influence of concomitant hypertension. the Framingham Heart Study. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007;4;2:111-116.

Terry DF, Evans JC, Pencina MJ, Murabito JM, Vasan RS, Wolf PA, Kelly-Hayes M, Levy D, D’Agostino Sr. RB, Benjamin EJ. Characteristics of Framingham offspring participants with long-lived parents. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:438-444.

Salaycik KJ, Kelly-Hayes M, Beiser A, Nguyen A-H, Brady SM, Kase CS, Wolf PA. Depressive symptoms and risk of stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke 2007;38:16-21.

Kathiresan S, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, Polak JF, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB, Jaffer FA, Clouse ME, Levy D, Manning WJ, O’Donnell CJ. Assessment by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, electron beam computed tomography, and carotid ultrasonography of the distribution of Subclinical atherosclerosis across Framingham risk strata. Am J Cardiol 2007;99(3):310-314.

Elias MF, Sullivan LM, Elias Pk, D’Agostino Sr RB, Wolf PA, Seshadri S, Au R, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RJ. Left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and lowered cognitive performance in the Framingham offspring. Hypertension. March 2007;49:439-445.

Seshadri S, Beiser A, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Au R, Kannel WB,Wolf PA. The lifetime risk of stroke: estimates from the Framingham Study. Stroke 2006;37(2):345-50.

Primary teaching affiliate
of BU School of Medicine