Knowledge Syntheses

This page provides a list of resources for producing systematic reviews, scoping reviews, rapid reviews, and other forms of knowledge synthesis.

If you would like help with your knowledge synthesis project, request a consultation with a librarian.

Standards & Methodological Guidance

Systematic Reviews

Scoping Reviews

Rapid Reviews

Critical Appraisal

Critical appraisal is an integral part of evidence-based medicine. The organizations listed below offer a variety of checklists to help with the process of critically appraising evidence. For a list of recommended critical appraisal tools, organized based on study type, see here.


A more comprehensive list of available tools can be found at the Systematic Review Toolbox, which provides a searchable repository of tools for everything from protocol development to text analysis to report write-up.

Data Extraction Tools

Screening Tools

  • Covidence (Paid subscription required)
  • DistillerSR (Paid subscription required)
  • Rayyan — a web and mobile app for systematic reviews.
  • Revtools: An R package to support article screening for evidence synthesis.

Review Protocol Registries

Local Resources


  • Munn Z, et al. Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2018;18(1):143. doi:10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x
  • Munn Z, et al. What kind of systematic review should I conduct? A proposed typology and guidance for systematic reviewers in the medical and health sciences. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18. doi:10.1186/s12874-017-0468-4