By Lisa Brown
HIV Non-disclosure, Stigma, Incarceration Are Possible Predictors of Poor Follow Up in Research Trials
A collaborative effort between American, Russian and Ukrainian researchers offers new insight into a well-known barrier to high quality, longitudinal HIV research: loss of participant follow up. This study, led by researchers at the BU Schools of Medicine and Public Health, explored the factors that contributed to attrition in large HIV trial in Russia, a country in which increasing amounts of HIV-related research is being conducted. Their results were published in the June 2014 issue of HIV Clinical Trials.
Any research study that experiences significant loss of participants is at risk for bias: the possibility the missing individuals were not lost randomly. For example, a medication trial of a 100 people, in which 30 people cannot follow up because they are hospitalized due to severe side effects, will look artificially positive if outcomes data are based on the remaining 70 individuals. Accordingly, the quality of a study will suffer and its findings may be called into question.
This is a particular problem in Russia, as injection drug use (IDU) represents a relatively higher cause of HIV transmission, which has in some studies been associated with factors that negatively impact follow-up: younger age, depression, mental illness, and concomitant alcohol use. However, this has not been a consistent finding, and other relevant factors like HIV non-disclosure status, perceived HIV stigma, and incarceration history have not been thoroughly explored until now.
The researchers analyzed the data from the HIV’s Evolution in Russia – Mitigating Infection Transmission and Alcoholism in a Growing Epidemic (HERMITAGE) study, in which patients were asked to return for six and 12 month assessments. Of the 660 participants in the study surviving until follow-up, 168 (25.5 percent) did not return for their 12 month follow up visit, and 101 (15.3 percent) never attended any follow-up visit at all, despite extensive retention strategies. Their analysis revealed that participants with current IDU and HIV status non-disclosure missed their first study at approximately 40 percent higher rates than those who did not. They also observed binge drinking was more likely to affect loss to follow up in men than in women, that that a history of incarceration was a stronger predictor of the same in women than in men.
BUSM Postdoctoral Fellow Tetiana Kiriazova, a Ukranian National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Invest research fellow at the BMC Clinical Addiction Research and Education (CARE) Unit in the department of medicine, and lead author on this study, concluded that “understanding and addressing potential predictor of attrition may improve participant retention in longitudinal clinical research studies of HIV-infected persons, particularly in important but resource-limited research settings.”
Submitted by Ravi Pandit, MD, MPH
A chronic disease afflicting more than 27 million Americans and 630 million worldwide, osteoarthritis occurs as the protective cartilage coating on joints in the knees, hips and other parts of the body degrades. No cure for osteoarthritis exists, but treatments can slow its progression, reduce pain and restore joint functioning. Now a team of researchers led by Professor Mark Grinstaff (BME, Chemistry, MSE) has developed a sensitive imaging method that promises to enhance diagnosis of osteoarthritis and enable improved care through earlier detection and more targeted treatments.
The method combines nanotechnology, engineering and medicine, and exploits new, biocompatible nanoparticles as contrast agents to image surface and interior regions of articular cartilage (the smooth, water-rich tissue that lines the ends of bones in load-bearing joints) — regions that traditional X-ray illumination cannot detect. The research, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, is described in the June 30 issue of Angewandte Chemie.
“In the short term, these contrast agents could be used to image cartilage over time to monitor the efficacy of proposed osteoarthritis drugs,” said Grinstaff. “With continued development, they may enable clinicians to diagnose and stage the disease so that the most appropriate course of treatment could be followed.”
Two members of Grinstaff’s lab, MD/PhD student Jonathan Freedman (Pharmacology) and Postdoctoral Fellow Hrvoje Lusic (BME and Chemistry), synthesized a new nanoparticle contrast agent made of tantalum oxide that diffuses into the cartilage, thus enabling clinicians to use CT-scans to assess cartilage thickness and pinpoint lesions and injuries in osteoarthritic tissue. Guided by their clinical collaborator, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School physician Brian Snyder, Freedman and Lusic used the nanoparticles to successfully image rat articular cartilage in in vivo and ex vivo experiments, as well as in a cadaverous finger joint.
They chose tantalum as a contrast agent material because it absorbs a greater fraction of X-rays produced at clinical scanning voltages than traditional materials. In addition, the tantalum nanoparticles’ positive charge automatically directs the particles to the cartilage, which carries a negative charge. Building on their initial success, the researchers plan to conduct additional in vivo experiments in animal models.
The impetus for exploring new and better contrast agents came from Snyder, who sought better ways to diagnose and assess treatment of osteoarthritis. Grinstaff sees the new method as especially promising for early detection of the disease.
“Today we have very poor capability to detect early stage osteoarthritis,” said Grinstaff. “Most patients come into the clinic at stage three when the pain becomes significant, but if diagnostics based on our method is done proactively, many patients could get the treatment they need much earlier and avoid a lot of discomfort.”
Submitted by Mark Dwortzan
BU Researchers and Collaborators Receive $12.6 Million NIH Grant to Study Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease
Researchers from the Biomedical Genetics division of the Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) are part of a five-university collaboration receiving a $12.6 million, four-year grant from the National Institute on Aging (NIA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to identify rare genetic variants that may either protect against, or contribute to Alzheimer’s disease risk.
At BUSM, the Consortium for Alzheimer’s Sequence Analysis (CASA) is led by Lindsay A. Farrer, PhD, Chief of Biomedical Genetics and professor of medicine, neurology, ophthalmology, epidemiology, and biostatistics, who is the principal investigator. Other Boston University investigators include Kathryn Lunetta, PhD, professor of biostatistics; Gyungah Jun, PhD, assistant professor of medicine, ophthalmology and biostatistics; and Richard Sherva, PhD, research assistant professor of medicine.
CASA investigators will analyze whole exome and whole genome sequence data generated during the first phase of the NIH Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Program, an innovative collaboration that began in 2012 between NIA and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), also part of NIH. They will analyze data from 6,000 volunteers with Alzheimer’s disease and 5,000 older individuals who do not have the disease. In addition, they will study genomic data from 111 large families with multiple members who have Alzheimer’s disease, mostly of Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic descent to identify rare genetic variants.
“This is an exciting opportunity to apply new genomic technologies and computational methods to improve our understanding of the biological pathways underlying this disease,” said Farrer. “The genes and pathways we identify as integral to the Alzheimer process may become novel therapeutic targets,” he added.
Alzheimer’s disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, has become an epidemic that currently affects as many as five million people age 65 and older in the United States, with economic costs that are comparable to, if not greater than, caring for those of heart disease or cancer. Available drugs only marginally affect disease severity and progression. While there is no way to prevent this disease, the discovery of genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s is bringing researchers closer to learning how the genes work together and may help identify the most effective interventions.
This effort is critical to accomplishing the genetic research goals outlined in the National Plan to Address Alzheimer’s Disease, first announced by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in May 2012 and updated annually. Developed under the National Alzheimer’s Project Act, the plan provides a framework for a coordinated and concentrated effort in research, care, and services for Alzheimer’s and related dementias. Its primary research goal is to prevent and effectively treat Alzheimer’s disease by 2025.
With the current award, CASA joins the NHGRI Large-Scale Sequencing and Analysis Centers program, an NIH-supported consortium that provides large-scale sequence datasets and analysis to the biomedical community. CASA researchers will facilitate the analyses of all Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) and additional non-ADSP sequence data to detect protective and risk variants for Alzheimer’s disease.
“We are delighted to support the important research being accomplished under this broad-based, collaborative effort. A team effort is vital to advancing a deeper understanding of the genetic variants involved in this complex and devastating disease and to the shared goal of finding targets for effective interventions,” said NIH Director Francis Collins, MD, PhD.
“Alzheimer’s disease research is appropriately one of our highest priorities,” said BUSM Dean Karen Antman, MD “We need more to better understand the genetic and environmental mechanisms that will come in part from CASA to develop more effective treatments or even better, to prevent the disease,” she added.
CASA is a collaboration of Boston University School of Medicine and four other American universities. Jonathan Haines, PhD, will lead the project at Case Western Reserve University; Richard Mayeux, MD, at Columbia University; Margaret Pericak-Vance, PhD, at the University of Miami; Gerard D. Schellenberg, PhD, at the University of Pennsylvania; and Lindsay Farrar, PhD, at Boston University.
This research is supported by the NIA grant UF1-AG047133.
Fifteen volunteers from the BU Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM) joined together with twelve volunteers from BU School of Medicine (BUSM) to provide health care services to children and their families at the second annual Interprofessional Spring Wellness Fair at the East Boston YMCA for Healthy Kids Day last April 26.
Oral Health Promotion Kathy Lituri and Farhan Khan AS 15 organized GSDM participation in the wellness fair. The GSDM faculty sponsors were Drs. Ana Keohane and Gladys Carrasco. The GSDM student volunteers were: William Alvarez (pre-dental), Michelle DaRocha DMD 15, David Garazi DMD 15, Siavash Golaby Sanajany DMD 15, Farhan Khan AS 15, Jeongyun Kim AS 15, Andrea Lugo (pre-dental), Reefat Malhotra AS 15, Ashish Papneja DMD 15, Abdul Rahman Addas AS 14, Richa Rashmi AS 15, Neeha Sood AS 15, and Bernadette Therriault AS 15. Dr. Suzanne Sarfaty served as the BUSM faculty liaison and Samih Nassif MED 17 was team leader for the medical students.
Despite a rainy day, volunteers were in high spirits and worked efficiently. The GSDM students promoted oral health by offering oral screenings as well as information on oral health topics, such as good oral hygiene practices, healthy eating, prevention of cavities and gum disease, dry mouth, denture care, smoking cessation, and the prevention of oral cancer. GSDM had five tables set up. They provided 26 screenings to children and adults.
The BUSM students offered screenings for blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol and measured body mass index. They also provided individualized nutrition information.
Co-organizer Farhan Khan said, “In exchange for a Saturday morning, we believe that we were able to raise awareness and help those individuals make positive health and wellness choices.” Khan continued, “Moreover, we had an excellent opportunity to be active and responsible members in our neighboring community.”
Khan noted that, in addition to giving back to the community, a secondary focus of the wellness fair was to strengthen inter-professional communication between medical and dental students. Their aim is to build a foundation of collaboration, which will be essential in a future of team-based and patient-centered health care.
Dean Jeffrey W. Hutter said, “I am very pleased to see members of the Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine and School of Medicine community joining together for a common cause.” He continued, “Thank you to the volunteers who contributed to the success of this community outreach event.”
Earlier this year, volunteers from BU’s Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM) provided services to adults with psychiatric disabilities at the Center Club Boston, a program of Bay Cove Human Services. Led by Oral Health Promotion Director Kathy Lituri and in collaboration with the GSDM student chapter of the American Association of Public Health Dentistry (AAPHD), Sai Ramani Krishna Kumar AS 15, Marium Qureshi AS 15, and Olga Spival (pre-dental) participated in a wellness fair held at the club.
Center Club is a five-day-a-week program for people with psychiatric disabilities. The program combines employment, housing, and education services with social activities, wellness initiatives, and advocacy using a holistic approach and principles of self-help, peer support and empowerment.
The aim of the wellness fair was to increase health awareness through education and prevention. Approximately 250 clients and staff of Bay Cove Human Services attended. Attendees were offered basic health screenings, blood pressure and glucose checks, as well as a variety of informational activities designed to raise awareness of the many health-related programs, services, and providers located in the surrounding community. The GSDM volunteers offered oral health screenings, referrals, and education.
Said Kathy Lituri, “This was an excellent opportunity for students to participate in a community-based event, share their expertise as oral health professionals, and to learn more about the oral health issues that affect adults and their families who live with mental illness, addiction disorders, or developmental disabilities.”
Submitted by GSDM Communications.
Women who are able to naturally have children later in life tend to live longer and the genetic variants that allow them to do so might also facilitate exceptionally long life spans.
A Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) study published in Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, says women who are able to have children after the age of 33 have a greater chance of living longer than women who had their last child before the age of 30.
“Of course this does not mean women should wait to have children at older ages in order to improve their own chances of living longer,” explained corresponding author Thomas Perls, MD, MPH. “The age at last childbirth can be a rate of aging indicator. The natural ability to have a child at an older age likely indicates that a woman’s reproductive system is aging slowly, and therefore so is the rest of her body.”
The study was based on analysis of data from the Long Life Family Study (LLFS)—a biopsychosocial and genetic study of 551 families with many members living to exceptionally old ages. Boston Medical Center, the teaching hospital affiliate of BUSM, is one of four study centers that make up the LLFS. The study investigators determined the ages at which 462 women had their last child and how old those women lived to be. The research found that women who had their last child after the age of 33 years had twice the odds of living to 95 years or older compared with women who had their last child by age 29.
The findings also indicate that women may be the driving force behind the evolution of genetic variants that slow aging and decrease risk for age-related genes, which help people live to extreme old age.
“If a woman has those variants, she is able to reproduce and bear children for a longer period of time, increasing her chances of passing down those genes to the next generation,” said Perls, the director of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS), a principal investigator of the LLFS and a professor of medicine at BUSM. “This possibility may be a clue as to why 85 percent of women live to 100 or more years while only 15 percent of men do.”
The results of this study are consistent with other findings on the relationship between maternal age at birth of last child and exceptional longevity. Previously, the NECS found that women who gave birth to a child after the age of 40 were four times more likely to live to 100 than women who had their last child at a younger age.
The results of Perls’ study show the importance of future research on the genetic influences of reproductive fitness because they may also impact a person’s rate of aging and susceptibility to age-related diseases, according to the researchers.
Also contributing to this study were researchers from Boston University School of Public Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Washington University and the University of Pennsylvania.
The Long Life Family Study is funded by the U.S. National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health.
BU-led study explores how a good fat becomes impaired
White and brown fat are the yin and yang of metabolism. We’re all familiar with white fat, the squishy stuff that bulges around our waists after a few too many doughnuts. But brown fat is more mysterious. It’s the good twin—it burns energy, produces heat, and may hold clues to combating obesity.
A new study led by Kenneth Walsh, director of the BU School of Medicine’sWhitaker Cardiovascular Institute and a MED professor of medicine, sheds light on the life—and death—of brown fat cells and illustrates the important role that brown fat plays in metabolism.
The study, published in the May Journal of Clinical Investigation, shows that feeding mice a high-fat, high-sugar diet causes their brown fat cells to malfunction, a process that Walsh likens to a “death spiral.” While it’s long been known that humans lose brown fat as they age, the study is the first to describe exactly how brown fat cells “whiten,” effectively becoming more similar to white fat.
“The biggest driver today for cardiovascular disease is obesity and metabolic dysfunction. That’s what’s bringing people into the clinic,” says Walsh. “This study further demonstrates the complex interplay between the cardiovascular and metabolic systems.”
White fat looks white because it’s full of molecules called lipids, which the body uses for long-term energy storage. Brown fat has lipids, too, but it is constantly using them like fuel to stoke a fire. Brown fat looks brown because is packed with mitochondria, the tiny cellular powerhouses that burn energy to keep us warm and move our muscles. (White fat, conversely, is not very metabolically active and has fewer mitochondria.) For many years, scientists thought that brown fat existed only in small mammals like mice and in newborn human babies, who need help staying warm.
Then in 2009 scientists found that adults have brown fat, too—a few pockets in their necks and chests. Since lean people have more brown fat than obese people, the scientists suspected that brown fat might somehow play a role in gaining weight or in keeping it off.
“For years brown fat was a scientific backwater, because we thought it was only in fuzzy little animals and babies,” Walsh says. “Suddenly it became part of the adult metabolic equation. Now it’s one of the hottest topics in metabolism.”
But big questions remain: does brown fat play a significant role in adult human metabolism? Can white fat become brown? Why do we lose brown fat as we age? How exactly does brown fat whiten, and is there a way to stop it?
In the study, Walsh and his colleagues tried to tackle the last question: what is happening, on a molecular level, when brown fat turns white? To answer the question, they fed normal mice high-fat, high-sugar mouse chow—much like the average American diet—and let them eat as much as they wanted. After eight weeks, remarkable changes were apparent: the mice had gained weight (white fat, unfortunately) and become insulin-resistant—a precursor to diabetes. And their brown fat, no longer able to burn energy efficiently, had become engorged with lipids. In effect, the brown fat had begun to turn white.
“You take a normal lab mouse, give it a fast-food diet full of fat and sugar, and it throws them out of whack,” says Walsh. “It totally confuses their metabolism.”
What happened? By studying tissue and blood samples from the mice at different times after starting the fast-food diet, Walsh and his colleagues teased apart the chain of events that led to the demise of brown fat. First, they discovered, the unhealthy diet led to high level of toxic fatty acids in the brown fat. This led to the malfunction of a gene called VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A), which helps control the growth of blood vessels in adult tissues. Without a well-functioning VEGFA gene, blood vessels feeding the brown fat shriveled and disappeared, sharply reducing its blood supply. Deprived of blood, and thus oxygen, the mitochondria in the brown fat cells couldn’t burn lipids efficiently, so the fuel began to pile up. The result: brown fat turned white. “It was a pathological cascade, a death spiral,” Walsh says. “Metabolic dysfunction led to the loss of blood vessels, and blood vessel loss impaired brown fat, leading to more metabolic dysfunction. What was really surprising is that the white fat was minimally affected by blood vessel loss, but the brown fat disintegrated.”
Then came the rescue attempt. Walsh and his colleagues used a virus to insert the gene for VEGFA into the brown fat of obese mice. The infusion of VEGFA didn’t bring the mice back to normal, but it had a restorative effect: the mice’s blood vessels stopped withering, the brown fat perked up and improved its function, and the insulin resistance improved.
It’s too early to say whether this work may eventually lead to new treatments for obesity in humans. But it does shed light on the critical role that the growth and atrophy of blood vessels may play in the maintenance of brown fat, and it demonstrates the rapid tumble toward metabolic dysfunction and obesity once brown fat starts to fail. The new knowledge gives clues for potential targets and treatments. By some predictions, half of the American population will be obese by 2050. To reverse the obesity epidemic, we may need all the clues that science can offer.
This BU Today story was written by Barbara Moran (COM’96) is a science writer in Brookline, Mass. She can be reached through her website WrittenByBarbaraMoran.com.
Patients who use marijuana have lower odds of achieving abstinence from other drugs and heavy alcohol use, indicating that marijuana use merits attention from addiction-treatment clinicians, a new study by researchers from the BU schools of public health and medicine has found.
The study, published online in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, examined the association between marijuana use and abstinence from opioid or stimulant drugs or alcohol.
The authors noted that marijuana theoretically could have a helpful or harmful influence on achieving sobriety: Substituting a less harmful drug might help to achieve abstinence from other drugs, while on the other hand, continued use of an addictive drug such as marijuana could interfere with efforts to quit other drugs, or have no impact at all. Prior studies have lent some support for each of those possibilities.
The new study — which recruited more than 500 participants with opioid, cocaine and alcohol use disorders, primarily from an inpatient detoxification unit – found that marijuana use was associated with a 27 percent reduction in the odds of abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use.
“While the findings may not mean addressing marijuana use during addiction treatment will improve treatment outcomes, they do suggest that possibility,” said the research team, led by Dr. Richard Saitz, chair of community health sciences at BUSPH and professor of medicine at the BU School of Medicine. “It seems reasonable to address marijuana use in substance-dependent people and in their treatment.”
One recent study found that pre-treatment marijuana use favorably influenced abstinence rates in cocaine users, compared to no pre-treatment marijuana use. But other studies have shown that marijuana use is associated with worse treatment outcomes in patients undergoing opioid agonist treatment. And still other research has found alcohol and marijuana use to be independent of one another.
The authors said they hoped their findings might help to clarify the conflicting evidence.
“Our study followed participants over a year and included laboratory testing for drugs and alcohol, and analyses adjusted for addiction severity — making it likely that the association between marijuana use and other drug and heavy alcohol use is real,” said Saitz.
“The findings might be useful for prognosis—so patients and clinicians alike can be aware that marijuana use in this circumstance increases the risk of subsequent other drug use. They are also useful because of implications for treatment or self-change. They imply that continued use of marijuana is not harmless,” added Saitz.
Saitz said that use of marijuana might increase the risk for other drug use because, like nicotine, it “stimulates the same reward pathways” in the brain.
“Continuing to stimulate those pathways with any drug could be related to using other drugs, some of which are more potent and harmful, as has been found for cigarette smoking,” he said.
The study was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health to Boston Medical Center.
Authors include: Mohammadali Mojarrad, a student at the BU School of Medicine; Dr. Jeffrey H Samet, professor of Medicine, BU School of Medicine and chief of general internal medicine at Boston Medical Center; Debbie M. Cheng, professor of biostatistics at BUSPH; and Michael R. Winter, associate director of the BUSPH Data Coordinating Center.
On Friday, May 16, 191 DMD students and 79 post-doctoral students received their degrees at the 2014 Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM) Convocation, held at the Walter Brown Arena.
Dean Jeffrey W. Hutter began the ceremony with a moment of silence in memory of Mrs. Rhoda Frankl, who passed away on Sunday, January 26. Mrs. Frankl, the wife of Dean Spencer N. Frankl, proudly served as the First Lady of the Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine for 30 years. “She will be dearly missed,” said Dean Hutter.
Dean Hutter led a second moment of silence for the victims of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. “We as a University and a School of Dental Medicine continue to be Boston Strong and Mrs. Hutter and I could not be more proud of how you and your colleagues who may not be here this afternoon reacted and coped with this horrific event and its aftermath,” said Dean Hutter.
Reverend Dr. Robert Allan Hill, Dean of Marsh Chapel, then offered his guidance with an invocation.
To the graduates, Dean Hutter said, “By receiving your degrees and certificates, you have earned the chance to uphold our and now your school’s Core Values of Respect, Truth, Responsibility, Fairness and Compassion, and have a positive impact on the dental profession and the overall health of the patients you care for.”
“Your education does not end here; you will continue to learn about the ever-changing profession of dentistry throughout your careers,” He continued. “Through practice, research, and teaching, you will make contributions to the future of the profession.”
For the first time, the valedictorian of the DMD Advanced Standing (AS) Program class was honored alongside the valedictorian of the four-year DMD Program. The 2014 DMD and AS valedictorians are, respectively, Kelsey Hill and Anna Boyakhchyan.
In her valedictorian address, Hill recalled, year by year, the challenges she and her classmates surmounted in dental school. Hill said, “And here we are, beginning the next chapter of our lives.” She continued, “As we divide onto our own paths, it will be our education and experiences here at BU that will help navigate our way.”
Boyakhchyan acknowledged three fundamental supports that shaped her time at GSDM: Boston University and the great city to which it owes its name, her family and friends, and her fellow students—the graduating class of 2014. “You can never be overdressed or overeducated,” Boyakhchyan said, quoting Oscar Wilde. “And while I claim that we all are a bit overdressed today, we will continue learning till the rest of our lives, as there’s always opportunity to improve and learn more.”
Dean Hutter presented the Spencer N. Frankl Award for Excellence in Teaching to two distinguished faculty: Dr. Thomas Kilgore, Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, and Dr. William Lehman, Professor of Physiology and Biophysics at the Boston University School of Medicine and Faculty Member for the Cellular Biophysics Program at Boston University.
Dr. Judith Jones delivered the keynote address. Dr. Jones holds the following positions at GSDM: Assistant Dean for Faculty Development, Director of the Center for Clinical Research, and Professor in the Department of Health Policy & Health Services Research and the Department of General Dentistry.
Dr. Jones shared with the graduates some ideas that have shaped her career and her wishes for their shared future. Dr. Jones elaborated on the following pieces of advice: Continue to be a lifelong learner; Strive for excellence in everything that you do; Recognize new opportunities when they appear; Serve your community; Give back to your profession and School and be an ambassador for BU.
Dr. Jones also pointed out to the graduates that they “have the right stuff to be happy”—this according to a measure outlined by Malcolm Gladwell, in his book Outliers. He said, “It is not how much money we make that ultimately makes us happy…three things—autonomy, complexity and a connection between effort and reward—are qualities that work has to have if it is to be satisfying.” Dr. Jones went on to describe how the dental profession satisfies each of these three criteria.
DMD Class of 2014 President Wyatt Traina and AS Class of 2014 President Rajiv Tuladhar presented the 2014 Class Gift to Dean Hutter. Collectively, the DMD and AS classes reached 100 percent participation and a Class Gift totaling $3743.92, the highest amount to date donated to the School by the graduating class.
Dean Hutter said, “Thank you very much Wyatt and Rajiv, and on behalf of all the faculty, staff, and students both present and future, I want to thank the members of the 2014 Class for contributing to this very special gift to our school.”
The 2014 pre- and post-doctoral graduates each then made the momentous march across the stage to receive their Certificates of Advanced Graduate Study and diplomas. Ten alums and one faculty member were brought onstage to present diplomas to graduating family members. Presenters included Craig Allen DMD 95, who presented to his niece, Jennifer Allen DMD 14; Philip Badalamenti ORTHO 80, who presented to his daughter AnneMarie Baldamenti ORTHO 14; Ray English, Jr. DMD 83, who presented to his son Ray English III DMD 14; Jose Jimenez PROS 85, who presented to his son Andres Jimenez PERIO 14; Ted Lee SDM 86, who presented to his son James E. Lee DMD 14; Shahrzad Shahbazian DMD 96 and Amir O. Shahbazian DMD 88, who presented to their son Cameron Shahbazian DMD 14; Dr. Diego Romero PROS 12, who presented to his wife Mariana Velazquez OMFS 14; faculty member Dr. Ira Weinberg, who presented to his daughter, Erica Weinberg DMD 14; and Clair Chang DMD 07, PROS 12, who presented to her fiancé, Bradley Woland ORTHO 14.
Dean Hutter then led the Class of 2014 in a recitation of the Professional Oath. Reverend Dr. Robert Allan Hill closed the 2014 GSDM Convocation with a benediction.
Submitted by GSDM Communications.
Should U.S. women be screened for cervical cancer with Pap tests, HPV tests or both? According to researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and Boston Medical Center (BMC) while the merits of screening tests and screening intervals warrant further discussion, they firmly believe that increasing the number of women who participate in cancer screenings and ensuring that women are not lost to follow-up with lengthened screening intervals is more important than the choice of test to decrease rates of cervical cancer.
In a commentary in this week’s issues of Annals of Internal Medicine, Drs. Rebecca Perkins and Elizabeth Stier provide insight into the benefits and limitations of cervical cancer screening discussing the advantages, disadvantages and questions related to screening with Pap tests only, HPV tests only, or Pap and HPV tests together.
The Pap test has been considered a cornerstone of women’s health for more than 60 years. In a new era of cervical cancer prevention, the FDA in 2014 approved the Cobas HPV test as the primary screening tool for cervical cancer for women aged 25 and older. However, questions remain regarding how HPV testing alone will be recommended for screening.
According to the researchers, testing with both Pap and HPV together (co-testing), detects the most cervical pre-cancer, but the improvement over HPV testing alone is small. “A single Pap test does not provide good protection against cancer, but repeat testing every three years has been shown to effectively reduce cancer rates, and it is the only method for which long term data are available,” explained co-author Rebecca Perkins, MD, MSc, assistant professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at BUSM and a gynecologist at BMC. Questions remain however regarding the cost of each test, and how often women will be asked to be screened.
“We also must remember that the majority of cervical cancers occur in women who have not had any recent screening and that increasing HPV vaccination rates will also be important to reducing cervical cancer rates in the future,” she added